Friday, 26 May 2017

Who Is Responsible When Your Tree Falls?

Written by Posted On Friday, 24 January 2014 18:00

Trees are falling everywhere. Hurricane Isabel left its strong mark all over the East Coast. Homeowners who have suffered damage are concerned about the possibility of liability to their next door neighbor, as well as who will bear the cost to remove the debris.

The legal answer to these concerns is quite simple; however, the interpretation and implementation of the law is rather complex.

Let's begin with insurance. Homeowners should carefully review their homeowner's insurance policy -- often called the "hazard policy". Many policies are now written in relatively simple English, so you should be able to understand what position your insurance carrier will take should you decide to file a claim. In most cases, your carrier will reimburse you for any damage caused to your property when a tree falls, subject of course to the level of your deductible.

According to the Insurance Information Institute, "U.S. insurers are likely to pay out close to $1 billion to help people whose homes, businesses and personal possessions were damaged by Hurricane Isabel ... The storm, which swept across North Carolina and Virginia and created significant flooding from the District of Columbia through Pennsylvania and western New York, is not expected to be among the most costly in history."

But, nowadays, there is a threshhold question you must ask: do I really want to file a claim against my insurance policy?

Insurance companies have been hit hard financially in the past few years. There are numerous examples where the carrier -- when faced with a claim -- will either significantly increase the next year's premium or decide not to renew the policy.

Thus, if your damage is minimal, give serious thought to picking up the cost yourself. Let's say you have $5000 in damage and your deductible is $2,000. If you file a claim, and you can produce proper evidence that the repair cost is really $5000, you will receive $3,000 from your carrier. But is this money worth facing possible non-renewal (or an increased insurance premium) next year?

You should talk with your insurance agent, but make sure that he/she understands that you are only seeking information -- and are not yet ready to formally file your claim.

Now let's get to the issue of liability. The general rule is that if your tree falls on your neighbor's property, even if it causes injury to a person or damage to property, you will not be liable so long as you are not negligent.

Furthermore, since the tree fell during a severe hurricane, you can usually raise the defense that this was an "Act of God".

But what constitutes negligence?

The answer depends on all of the facts. Did the tree owner have any knowledge that the tree was a potential hazard? Should the tree owner have been on notice of a problem because the tree was not showing leaves but only bare limbs?

Did your neighbor complain about the safety of your tree, and yet you took no action?

There is a long -- often convoluted and contradictory -- legal history relating to the development of "tree law". Our legal system is predicated on what we refer to as the "Common Law" -- the laws which came over from England before the founding of our nation. Under the common law, the land owner owed no duty to those outside his property to correct natural conditions on the property -- even though those conditions might present a hazard to outsiders. My home was my castle and I was master of that property.

But as our nation grew from a rural to an urban environment, this common law rule began to lose its impact. Houses were next door to each other, and homeowners had to be concerned about injuring or damaging their neighbor -- or their neighbor's property.

Accordingly, Judges faced with such tree-falling cases began to carve out exceptions to the common law. Some Courts held that a falling tree was a trespass; others held that such a tree was a nuisance. Both theories evolved into the current rule of law, namely that the tree owner is only responsible if that owner was negligent.

But readers will say that begs the question ... Exactly what constitutes negligence?

Here we have to look to specific cases. Take the leading case in the District of Columbia (Dudley v Meadowbrook, 1961). The Defendant's tree fell onto the Plaintiff's property and damaged a garage. The evidence indicated that there was no strong wind blowing when the tree fell. Furthermore, although the tree was in "full foliage with no dead branches", on one side of the tree there was a strip of cement extending from the ground to a height of about 5 feet. This cement was placed around the tree during construction of an apartment house several years earlier.

The trial (lower) Court found for the Defendant. However, the appellate court reversed. According to the Court opinion:

We think the sound and practical rule is that liability in such cases is to be determined by the test of negligence and that a landowner should be held to the duty of common prudence in maintaining his property, including trees, in such a way as to prevent injury to his neighbor's property.

The Court went on to state that "a healthy tree does not ordinarily fall of its own weight without some exterior force being directed against it. Though some evidence indicated that the tree looked sound, it was in fact full of decay. At least 13 years earlier it had been subjected to surgery and a large area filled with concrete."

In conclusion, the Court suggested that a land owner has a duty to periodically inspect the trees on his property or at least have them examined by an expert to determine whether they are safe to continue to stand.

In order for negligence to be found, the Plaintiff (the injured neigbor) would have to file suit against the tree owner. Most cases are not clear cut; they require extensive background research, expert testimony and a potentially lengthy trial. This is both time consuming and expensive for a Plaintiff. And it should be pointed out that our Court follows what is known as the "American Rule of Legal Fees". In the absence of a written contract or a statute authorizing attorneys fees, each side pays their own attorneys fees.

And even if a lawsuit is brought, the tree owner can raise the defense that an "Act of God" (or in this case an Act of Isabel) caused the tree damage. If the tree owner was on notice before the hurricane that the tree was likely to fall down, this defense may not be accepted by a Court of Law. But it nevertheless is a legal defense which every defendant will raise when sued.

There is yet another defense, namely "contributory negligence". The general rule is that if a tree limb or a tree root protrudes on a neighbor's property, that neighbor has the right to exercise self-help -- i.e. the offending root or limb can be cut off.

Some Court cases have determined that the tree owner was not liable, since the neighbor -- who knew that the tree was dangerous -- did not exercise this self-help. In other words, the neighbor's own negligence defeated his claim against the tree owner.

The clear moral to this legal history is that litigation may not be the best approach. If your neighbor's tree falls onto your property -- whether or not it causes damage -- you should talk to your neighbor and propose that you share in the cost of removal and repair. Clearly, this is probably the least expensive way to resolve your issues, and you also can avoid filing that claim against your insurance carrier.

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Benny L. Kass

Author of the weekly Housing Counsel column with The Washington Post for nearly 30 years, Benny Kass is the senior partner with the Washington, DC law firm of Kass, Mitek & Kass, PLLC and a specialist in such real estate legal areas as commercial and residential financing, closings, foreclosures and workouts.

Mr. Kass is a Charter Member of the College of Community Association Attorneys, and has written extensively about community association issues. In addition, he is a life member of the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws. In this capacity, he has been involved in the development of almost all of the Commission’s real estate laws, including the Uniform Common Interest Ownership Act which has been adopted in many states.


  • Comment Link Rod Thursday, 14 May 2015 21:21 posted by Rod

    Anna: write a letter to your neighbors telling them that their trees are dead and are subject to falling at any time. This puts your neighbors on notice that they have a duty to inspect and remedy the trees. If they fail, it is a breach and it is foreseeable that it will cause you some damage. I would ask your neighbors to forward this notice letter to their personal insurance carrier. I would then send a copy to my own insurance carrier. If your neighbors fail to act, you could probably sue them for "injunctive relief" in which your letter is now exhibit 1.

  • Comment Link Anna Friday, 08 May 2015 18:04 posted by Anna

    Our elderly neighbors have a 50 foot Austrian Pine that died more than 3 years ago and another 50 foot Austrian Pine that died over 2 years ago. The trunks split in two, half way up.They are barely in their property, and less than 15 feet from our house. When we get high winds we are afraid to sleep in our bedroom. We have talked with them about this more than once. The lady says they can't afford to have them cut. What do we do?

  • Comment Link disgruntled rate payer Wednesday, 15 April 2015 11:19 posted by disgruntled rate payer

    sure...don't file a claim...the ins. co may cancel your policy..
    what the heck are "insurance" companies about anyway..oh, yeah
    I remember.....just making money off their "clients"....ROBBERY,
    THEFT, BLACKMAIL, LIES, EXTORTION....and they said
    used car dealers are crooks....

  • Comment Link deborah mapes Monday, 01 December 2014 23:15 posted by deborah mapes

    Hi Benny, I must have read your article on trees and owner's responsibilities 50 times. I called your office and was told you no longer accept clients nor answer e-mails. I'm sure however you will read this. I will be using your article at my hearing. I think it proves my situation in that, my neighbor must be negligent as his 50ft. high limb fell and damaged my property. I will assert the fact that a healthy limb does not fall from a tree. With regards to Act of God, it does not apply as there was only calm for the 3 weeks range of the occurrence. Thanks Deborah

  • Comment Link Dee Wednesday, 09 July 2014 12:16 posted by Dee

    My daughters car was damaged by a falling tree last evening. The tree was in a part owned by her town. Is the town liable for the damage. It is a town in Pennsylvania where she lives, and she was legally parked on the street next to the park.

  • Comment Link learn more here Monday, 10 February 2014 19:29 posted by learn more here

    hello!,I like your writing so a lot! proportion we keep in touch more about your post on AOL? I need an expert in this space to solve my problem. Maybe that's you! Having a look ahead to peer you.

  • Comment Link Pat Callahan Sunday, 26 January 2014 18:09 posted by Pat Callahan

    Another bulls eye by Benny. Love to read his materials. Written in simple, plain language. Good point about filing insurance claims. As we have seen with autos, best to eat the loss rather than risk reprisal by insurance companies, especially those in lax consumer protection states.

  • Comment Link Michael Haltman Saturday, 25 January 2014 14:06 posted by Michael Haltman

    Great article Benny. On Long Island this question is asked every time that there is a storm.


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